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Laravel Interview Question Answers

Laravel Interview Question Answers

Whether it's a job interview or a personal interview, there are always some questions that are generally asked that are known as laravel interview questions and answers, we can say that are the clichés of the interview world. Just like that in the technical interviews there are some of the questions that are commonly asked that can be for the experience professional or we can say laravel interview questions and answers for experienced. Here, we have depicted the most widely asked Laravel Interview questions and answers that will be beneficial for the enthusiasts of this very field.

1.What is Laravel?

Laravel is basically known to be free to use, open-source web framework that is entirely based on PHP. It has been developed by Taylor Otwell . This is also known to support the MVC (Model-View-Controller) architectural pattern. Laravel usually delivers an expressive and elegant syntax that has been found to be useful for creating a wonderful web application easily and quickly. However, the very first version of the Laravel was released on 9th June 2011.

Laravel has been voted as one of the most popular PHP frameworks along with Nette, CodeIgniter, Symfony, and Yii2 as of SitePoint survey in March 2015.

 

2.What are the main features of Laravel?

There are many features of the Laravel but here are some of the main features of Laravel that has been depicted below:

  • Eloquent ORM
  • Query builder
  • Reverse Routing
  • Restful Controllers
  • Migrations
  • Database Seeding
  • Unit Testing
  • Homestead

3.What is Eloquent ORM in Laravel?

Eloquent ORM (Object-Relational Mapping) is basically known as one of the main features of the Laravel framework. It can be also defined as an advanced PHP implementation that is of the active record pattern. Active record pattern is basically an architectural pattern that is known to be found in software. This is basically responsible for keeping in-memory object data in the relational databases Eloquent ORM is also known to be responsible for delivering the internal methods at the same time when enforcing the constraints on the relationship that are between database objects. Eloquent ORM is known to represent the database tables as classes, that too with their object instances that are tied to single table rows exactly while following the active record pattern.

4.What is meant by Query Builder in Laravel?

Laravel's Query Builder is known to deliver more direct access to the database and alternative to the Eloquent ORM. This doesn't need the SQL queries in order to be written directly. Rather than, this generally offers a set of classes and methods that are capable of building queries programmatically. This also permits some of the specific caching of the results of the executed queries.

5.What are some of the aggregates methods that are provided by the Laravel's query builder?

There are various methods that Query Builder is known to deliver some of them have been listed below for your understanding:

  • count()
  • max()
  • min()
  • avg()
  • sum()

6.What Do you mean by routing?

All of the Laravel routes are generally defined in the route files that are stored in the routes directory. These are basically the files that are loaded by the MVC framework. The routes/web.php files are known to define the routes that are generally available for the web interface. Those are the routes that are allotted as the web middleware group that basically delivers features like session state and CSRF protection. The routes that are usually available in the routes/api.php are basically stateless and are being allotted as the API middleware group. One should have to start by defining the routes in routes/web.php file, for most of the applications.

7.What do you mean by Reverse routing?

Reverse routing in Laravel is generally used in order to generate the URL based on name or the symbol. This is known to define a relationship between the links and the Laravel routes. It can be possible to make later changes to the routes that are to be automatically propagated into the relevant links. Whenever the links are to be generated by the help of names that are of existing routes, the appropriate uniform resource identifiers (URIs) are known to be generated automatically by the Laravel. Reverse routing is the thing that delivers flexibility to the application and it assist the developer in order to write cleaner codes.

Here is the syntax of the Route Declaration:

Route::get('login', '[email protected]');

Please note that a link can be created to it by the help of reverse routing that generally can be further transferred in to any parameter that the users have defined. In case the optional parameters have not been supplied then then these have to be removed automatically from the generated links.

{{ HTML::link_to_action('[email protected]') }} 

By using it, a URL like https://abc.go.com/loginwill be automatically created.

8.Explain the facts about Bundles in Laravel?

Bundles in the Laravel are also known as Packages. These packages are basically the primary way to add more functionality to the Laravel. Packages can basically be anything it can be from a great way to work with dates like Carbon or it can be an entire BDD testing framework such as Behat. Laravel is also known to deliver the support for creating custom packages.

Please note that there are various types of packages. Some of them are generally known to be stand-alone packages. This basically means that these can work with any of the PHP framework. The frameworks that are like Carbon and Behat are the perfect examples of stand-alone packages. Other packages that are basically intended for use with Laravel. These are the packages that may contain routes, controllers, views, and configurations that are mainly designed to upgrade a Laravel application.

9.What do you mean by a composer to install Laravel by the composer?

A composer is basically a dependency manager that exists in PHP. This is known to manage the dependencies that are basically required for a project. This generally means that the composer will pull in all of the necessary libraries, dependencies, and then manage all of them at a single place.

Here are the steps to the Laravel Installation:

  • First, the user have to download a composer on a system if they do not have any composer then they can download it form the web for free.
  • After this step the user have to go to htdocs folder
  • After this step the user have to run the below command under C:\xampp\htdocs>

10.Does the Laravel known to support caching?

Indeed, the Laravel is known to deliver support for the popular caching backends such as Memcached and Redis.

Laravel has been configured to use file cache driver by default that is basically used in order to store the serialized or cached objects in the file system. For the huge projects, this is generally suggested to use Memcached or Redis.

11.How one can clear cache in Laravel?

Here is the syntax that is used to clear the cache in Laravel is depicted below:

  • php artisan cache: clear
  • php artisan config: clear
  • php artisan cache: clear

12.Please elaborate middleware in Laravel?

As a matter of the fact, middleware is known to work as a middleman, as the name evince, between the request and response. Middleware is also known as a form of HTTP requests filtering mechanism. For instance, Laravel is known to contain the middleware that are known to verify whether the user of the application is authenticated or not. In case, a user is found to be authenticated and trying to access the dashboard then it is the middleware that will redirect that same user to the home page; or else, the user will be redirected to the login page.

Please note that there are basically two types of middleware that are available in Laravel:

  • Global Middleware

This middleware is known to run on every HTTP request of the application.

  • Route Middleware

This middleware is known to be assigned to a specific route.

Here are the syntax of the middleware depicted below:

php artisan make:middlewareMiddelwareName

Here is an example of the same depicted below:

php artisan make:middlewareUserMiddleware

13.What do you mean by the database migrations in Laravel? How it can be used?

Migrations in the Laravel can generally be defined as the version control for the database that basically permits the users to modify and share the application's database schema very easily. Migrations are also known to be commonly paired with the Laravel's schema builder in order to build the application's database schema easily.

A migration file usually known to include two methods, up() and down(). A method up() is basically used in order to add new tables, columns or indexes database and the down() method is basically used in order to reverse the operations that are performed by the up() method.

Please note that the users can generate a migration and its file by the help of the make:migration.

Here is the syntax of the same depicted below:

php artisan make:migration blog

By using the above mentioned syntax, a current date blog.php file will be made in database/migrations.

14.How the user can get data between two dates by using Query in Laravel?

Please note that the users can use whereBetween() method in order to retrieve the data between two dates with the Query.

Here is an example that will enhance your understanding:

Blog::whereBetween('created_at', [$date1, $date2])->get();

15.What are the Service providers in Laravel?

Service providers in this language can be defined generally as the central place that is used to configure the entire Laravel applications. Applications and the Laravel's core services are basically bootstrapped via the service providers. These are basically the powerful tools that are used for maintaining class dependencies and to perform dependency injection. Service providers are also been used to instruct Laravel in order to bind the various components into the Laravel's Service Container.

Here is an artisan command that has been depicted below that can be used to generate a service provider:

php artisan make: provider ClientsServiceProvider

Almost, all of the service providers generally extend the Illuminate\Support\ServiceProviderclass. Many of the service providers generally consists below-listed functions in its file:

  • Register() Function
  • Boot() Function

Within the Register () method the user should only bind the things into the service container that is present in the language. The user should also never attempt to register any of the event listeners, routes, or any other piece of the functionality that is present within the Register () method.

16.What is CSRF token in Laravel? How one can turn off CSRF protection for a specific route?

CSRF protection generally elaborates to Cross-Site Request Forgery protection. CSRF is basically used to detect any unauthorized attacks on the web applications by the unauthorized users of a system. The built-in CSRF plug-in is usually used in order to create CSRF tokens for the fact that this can verify all of the operations and requests that has been sent by an active authenticated user.

In order to turn off the CSRF protection for a specific route the users can add that very specific URL or Route in $except variable that is basically present in the app\Http\Middleware\VerifyCsrfToken.phpfile.

Here is an example of the same that will help you in understanding the concept very clearly:

classVerifyCsrfToken extends BaseVerifier  
{  
protected $except = [  
          'Pass here your URL',  
      ];  
}  

17.Explain some official packages that are provided by Laravel?

There are various official packages that are generally delivered by Laravel. Here are some of them packages are discussed with a brief description that has been depicted below:

  • Cashier

Laravel cashier is used frequently as it implements an expressive, fluent interface to Stripe's and Braintree's subscription billing services. This is also used to control almost all of the boilerplate subscription billing code that the user is dreading writing. More to that, the cashier in Laravel can also be used to control coupons, subscription quantities, swapping subscription, cancellation grace periods, and even generate invoice PDFs.

  • Envoy

Laravel Envoy is basically used very frequently as it is responsible for delivering a clean, minimal syntax for defining frequent tasks that the programmers generally run on their remote servers. By use of the Blade style syntax, the user can generally quickly arrange tasks for deployment, Artisan commands, and many more. Envoy is known as it only delivers support for the Mac and Linux.

  • Passport

Laravel is generally used in order to create API authentication that are used to act as a breeze with the assistance of Laravel passport. This is further used to deliver a full Oauth2 server implementation for the Laravel application in a span of minutes. Passport is generally assembled on the top of League OAuth2 server that is maintained by Alex Bilbie.

  • Scout

Laravel Scout is basically used in order to provide a simple, driver-based solution for adding the full-text search to the eloquent models. By the help of this model observers, Scout automatically stores the search indexes in the sync with the eloquent records.

  • Socialite

Laravel Socialite is generally used in order to deliver an expressive, fluent interface to OAuth authentication with the Facebook, Twitter, Google, and Linkedln, etc. This is basically used to control almost all of the boilerplate social authentication code that the users are dreading writing.

18.What do you mean by the Unit testing?

Unit testing is basically known as the built-in testing that is provided as an integral part of the Laravel. It is also known to contain the unit tests that detect and prevent regressions in the framework. Unit tests can also be run through the artisan command-line utility that are available.

19.Explain about the Facades in Laravel?

Laravel Facades is known to deliver a static-like interface classes that are basically available in the application's service container. Laravel is known to self-ship with the several available facades that basically provides the access to the almost all features of Laravel. Facades have been known to also assist to access a service directly from the container itself. It has been described in the Illuminate\Support\Facades namespace. Hence, that makes it easy to use.

Here is an example that will describe the above concept very easily:

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Cache;  
     Route::get('/cache', function () {  
return Cache::get('PutkeyNameHere');  
})  

20.How one can check the Laravel current version?

It is very easy task to check the current version of the Laravel. Anyone can check the current version of Laravel installation by the help of the -version option of artisan command.

Php artisan -version

21.Explain dd() function in Laravel?

dd in laravel elaborates to "Dump and Die." Laravel's dd() function can generally be defined as a helper function that is basically used to dump a variable's contents to the browser and hence preventing the further script execution.

22.What do you understand by PHP artisan? Please mention some of the artisan command.

PHP artisan is basically known as a command-line interface/tool that is delivered with Laravel. This generally contains various useful commands that are proven to be helpful while building an application. Here are the few artisan commands that has been depicted below:

  • PHP artisan list

A 'list' command is generally used in order to view a list of all the available Artisan commands.

  • PHP artisan help

Every command usually consists of a 'help' screen that is generally used in order to display and describe the command's available arguments and options. In order to display a help screen the user have to run 'help' command.

  • PHP artisan tinker

Laravel's artisan tinker is basically a REPL that evaluates to (Read-Eval-Print Loop). By the help of tinker, the programmer can write the actual PHP code via the assistance of command-line. The users can even update or delete the table records that are present in the database.

  • PHP artisan -version

By the help of this command, the user can also view the current version of the Laravel installation.

  • PHP artisan make model model_name

This is the command that is known to create a model 'model_name.php' that is under the 'app' directory.

  • PHP artisan make controller controller_name

This command is generally used in order to build a new controller file in app/Http/Controllers folder.

23.How can one explain Events in Laravel?

An event is basically an activity or occurrence that is generally recognized and handled by the program. Events in the Laravel is known to be a simple observer implementations that permits allow the users to subscribe and listen for events within their application. The event classes are basically stored in app/Events, while the listeners of theirs are generally stored in app/Listeners of their application. These can be usually generated by the help of Artisan console commands. Any single event may usually consists of multiple listeners that does not depend on each other.

Here are some of the events examples that are present in Laravel that have been depicted below:

  • A new user is being registered
  • A new comment is being posted.
  • User getting login/logout.
  • A new product is being added.

24.Explain the validations in Laravel?

Validations are basically the approaches that the Laravel framework uses in order to validate the incoming data that is within the application.

They are known as the handy way that is to ensure that data is in a clean and expected format beforehand it gets entered into the database that is designed for it. Laravel contains several different ways that are used to validate the incoming data of the application. Please note that by default the base controller class of Laravel basically uses a ValidatesRequests trait in order to validate all the incoming HTTP requests with the assistance of powerful validation rules.

25.What do you mean by the term Lumen?

Lumen is basically a PHP micro-framework that has been built on Laravel's top components. This has been created by Mr. Taylor Otwell that is known as the creator of Laravel. This has been created for building Laravel based micro-services and the blazing fast APIs. This is also one of the fastest micro-frameworks that are available. Lumen is generally known as not a complete web framework such as Laravel and it is used for creating APIs only. Hence, several of the components that are like HTTP sessions, cookies, and templating, has been excluded from Lumen. Lumen delivers a support for features like logging, routing, caching queues, validation, error handling, middleware, dependency injection, controllers, database abstraction, the service container, blade templating, Eloquent ORM, and command scheduler, etc.

Users can install the Lumen by the help of composer by running the command that has been depicted below:

composer create-project --prefer-distlaravel/lumen blog

26.Which template engine is generally used by the Laravel?

The blade is basically a simple yet it is powerful templating engine that is usually delivered with Laravel. Please note that there is no restriction in order to use the PHP codes in the views. All of the blade views are generally compiled into the simple PHP code and are cached until they are been modified. Blade are known to add effectively zero overhead to the application. Blade view files in the Laravel basically uses the .blade.phpfile extension and are generally saved in the resources/views directory of the framework.

27.Elaborate the Service container and the advantages.

Service container in the Laravel is generally known as one of the most powerful features that is available. This is basically an important, powerful tool that is used for resolving class dependencies and performing the dependency injection in the Laravel. This is also been famous as IoC container.

Dependency injection is basically a term that essentially means that the class dependencies are "injected" into class by the help of constructor whereas in some cases with the help of “setter" methods.

Advantages of Service Container

There are various advantages of the service container, some of them has been depicted below:

  • This is generally used to handle the class dependencies on object creation.
  • This is generally used to combine interfaces in order to concrete classes.

28. What do mean by Laravel Contracts?

Laravel's Contracts are basically known as the set of interfaces that are responsible for explaining the core functionality of the services that are provided by the Laravel framework.

29. Explain homestead in the Laravel?

Homestead is basically an official, pre-packaged, and vagrant virtual machine that is used to deliver Laravel developers and all the necessary tools in order to develop Laravel out of the box. This machine is also known to include Ubuntu, Gulp, Bower, and various other development tools that are useful in developing full-scale web applications. This basically delivers a development environment that can be used without the help of additional need in order to install PHP, a web server, or any other server software on the machine that is generally introduced in the Laravel Framework in PHP.

30. Define the differences that are between Laravel and Codeigniter?

Laravel Codeigniter
Laravel is basically a framework with an expressive, elegant syntax. Codeigniter is known as a powerful framework that is based on PHP.
Laravel has been built for the latest version of the PHP language. Codeigniter is also an older and more mature framework as compared to others.
Laravel is known to be more object-oriented as compared to Codeigniter. Codeigniter is known to be less object-oriented as compared to Laravel.
Laravel have the ability to produce model-view-controller, active-record, dependency injection, observer, singleton, façade, restful, event-driven, MTV, and HMVC design patterns. Codeigniter have the ability to produce model-view-controller, active-record, and HMVC design patterns.
Laravel is known to support ORM. Codeigniter does not generally support ORM
Laravel needs 1 GB memory in order to operate. Codeigniter generally needs a space of 256 GB memory.
Laravel has the built-in function of user authentication support. Codeigniter on the other hand does not have the feature of in-built user authentication support.

31. How the user can get the user's IP address in Laravel?

It is very easy to get the IP address of the user in the laravel. The user or the programmer just have to use the following code to do so:

public function getUserIp(Request $request){  
// Gettingip address of remote user  
return $user_ip_address=$request->ip();  
}  

32. How can the user use the custom table in Laravel?

The process of using the custom table in Laravel is very easy as it can be done by overriding the protected $table property of Eloquent. Here is the sample code that has been depicted below:

class User extends Eloquent{  
protected $table="my_user_table";  
}  

33. What is the necessity of the Eloquent cursor() method in Laravel?

The cursor method generally permits the users in order to iterate through the user’s database by the help of a cursor that is known to execute only a single query. During processing the very large amounts of data, the cursor method can also be used in order to reduce the user’s memory usage greatly.

Here is an example that will follow:

foreach (Product::where('name', 'bar')->cursor() as $flight) {  
//make some stuff  
}  

34. How can a user create a helper file in Laravel?

It is very easy for any programmer in laravel to create a helper file just by using the composer as per the steps that has been depicted below:

The user have to make a file "app/helpers.php" within the app folder.

Then the user have to add

"files": [  
"app/helpers.php"  
]  

in the "autoload" variable.

After this thing the user have to update composer.json with the composer dump-autoload or composer update.

35. What are the various requirements for the Laravel 5.8?

For the Laravel 5.8, there are various requirements that has been depicted below in the form of a list:

  • PHP Version>=7.1.3
  • OpenSSL PHP Extension
  • PDO PHP Extension
  • Mbstring PHP Extension
  • Tokenizer PHP Extension
  • XML PHP Extension
  • Ctype PHP Extension
  • JSON PHP Extension

36. In which of directory does the controllers are kept in Laravel?

Controllers are basically known to be kept in app/http/Controllers directory.

37. What is the working of PHP compact function?

PHP compact function generally known to receive each of the key and it basically tries to search a variable that has with that same name. In case, a variable has been found, then it is generally build an associate array.

38. Did you known that what are the major differences that are present in between Laravel 4 and Laravel 5.x?

There are various major differences that are present in between the Laravel 4 and Laravel 5.x. Here are some of the major difference that are very likely to be noticed:

  • The old or previous app/models directory is known to be entirely removed.
  • Middleware, Controllers, and requests (this is a new class in Laravel 5.0) has been now combined under the app/Http directory.
  • A new app/Providers directory that is known to change the app/start files from the previous versions of Laravel of 4.x.
  • Application language files and views are basically moved to the resources directory of the framework.
  • All of the major Laravel components are known to include the interfaces that are basically located in the illuminate/contracts repository.
  • Laravel 5.x has been now supporting the HTTP middleware. The included authentication and the CSRF "filters" are known to be converted in to middleware.
  • The user or the programmer can now type-hint the dependencies on one of the controller methods.
  • User authentication, registration, and password reset controllers has been now combined out of the box that also includes simple related views that are generally located at the resources/views/auth.
  • The user or the programmer now can define the events as the objects instead of simply using the strings.
  • Laravel 5 is also known to permit the users to represent their queued jobs as one of the simple command objects that are in addition to the queue job format that are basically supported in Laravel 4. These are basically the commands that are available inside the app/Commands display.

39. Explain some of the benefits of Laravel over the other PHP frameworks.

There are various benefits of the Laravel that can be known to be considered over the other PHP frameworks. Here are some of the benefits are described below:

  • In the Laravel, Setup and customization process is generally very fast and easy in comparison to others.
  • Laravel is known to support multiple file systems.
  • Laravel has the pre-loaded packages that are like Laravel cashier, Laravel Socialite, Laravel elixir, Laravel Passport, and Laravel Scout, etc.
  • This is also known to contain the in-built Authentication System.
  • This is also known to support the Eloquent ORM (Object Relation Mapping) along with the PHP active record implementation.
  • "Artisan" command-line tool is known to create a code skeleton, database structure, and build their migration.

40. What are the types of relationships that are available in Laravel Eloquent?

There are various types of relationships that are present in the Laravel Eloquent ORM supports. Some of them has been depicted below:

  • One to One
  • One to Many
  • One to Many (Inverse)
  • Many to Many
  • Has Many Through
  • Polymorphic Relations
  • Many To Many Polymorphic Relations

41. What do you mean by the term ORM?

ORM basically elaborates to Object-Relational Mapping. This is known to a programming technique that is usually used in order to convert the data that is between incompatible type systems in the object-oriented programming languages.

42. How the user or the programmer can implement a package in Laravel?

In order to implement a package in Laravel the user or the programmer have to use the following mentioned methods that are generally used:

  • By usually creating a package folder and then name it.
  • By usually creating Composer.json file that is for the package.
  • By loading the package through the main composer.json and PSR-4.
  • By generally creating a Service Provider.
  • By creating a Controller that is for the package.
  • By creating a Routes.php file in the framework.

43. What do you understand about the Traits in Laravel?

PHP Traits is basically a group of methods that can generally be included within another class. A Trait is not something that cannot be instantiated by itself just like an abstract class. Traits are known to be generated in order to reduce the limitations of a single inheritance in the PHP language. This generally permits the developer in order to reuse the sets of methods that are freely in various independent classes living in the different class hierarchies.

44. How the user can change the default database type in Laravel?

Laravel is basically configured in order to use MySQL by default.

In order to change its default database type the user just have to edit the file config/database.php:

  • Then they have to search for 'default' =>env('DB_CONNECTION', 'mysql')
  • Then they have to change it to whatever that is being required such as 'default' =>env('DB_CONNECTION', 'sqlite')

Lastly by the help of the above mentioned steps the MySQL changes to SQLite.

45. How can the user use the maintenance mode in the Laravel 5?

Whenever an application is in the maintenance mode then a custom view of the field is basically displayed that is for all requests into the application. This generally makes it very easy to "disable" the application while it is being updated or performing the maintenance. A maintenance mode is necessary in order to check whether it is added in the default middleware stack for the user’s application. Whenever an application is known to be in maintenance mode then a MaintenanceModeException is known to be thrown with a status code of 503.

The programmers can generally enable or disable the maintenance mode in the Laravel 5, by just simply executing the below mentioned command:

// Enable maintenance mode

php artisan down

// Disable maintenance mode

php artisan up

46. How can the user can create a record in Laravel using eloquent?

The user can create a new model instance if the user want to create a new record in the database by the help of Laravel eloquent. Then the user is required to set the attributes on the model and then call the save() method.

47. How can the user just check the logged-in user info in the Laravel?

User() function is generally used in order to get the logged-in user

Here is an example that will explain the benefits:

if(Auth::check()){  
$loggedIn_user=Auth::User();  
dd($loggedIn_user);  
}  

48. How can you describe the Fillable Attribute in a Laravel model?

In eloquent ORM, the $fillable attribute is basically an array containing all those fields of table that can be filled using mass-assignment.

Mass assignment generally refers to sending an array to the model in order to directly create a new record in Database.

Here is the code Source

class User extends Model {  
protected $fillable = ['name', 'email', 'mobile'];   
// All fields inside $fillable array can be mass-assigned  
}  

49. Please explain the Guarded Attribute in a Laravel model?

The guarded attribute is basically the opposite of the fillable attributes.

In Laravel, the fillable attributes are basically used in order to specify only those fields that are needed to be mass assigned. Guarded attributes are generally used in order to specify those fields that are not mass assignable.

Here is the code Source of the above mentioned topic:

class User extends Model {  
protected $guarded = ['role'];   
// All fields inside the $guarded array are not mass-assignable  
}  

If the user wants to block all the fields from being mass-assigned the they can use:

protected $guarded = ['*'];

$fillable basically serves as a "white list" on the other hand $guarded functions basically serves like a "black list". The user should use either the $fillable or $guarded.

50. Explain about the Closures in Laravel?

In Laravel, a Closure is basically an anonymous method that can generally be used as a callback function. This can also be used as one of the parameter in a function. This is also possible to pass the parameters into a Closure. This can also be done by changing the Closure function call that is in the handle() method in order to provide the parameters to it. A Closure can also be accessed by the variables outside the scope of the variable.

Here is an example that will help you in getting the concept of the above mentioned topic:

function handle(Closure $closure) {  
    $closure();  
}  
handle(function(){  
echo 'Interview Question';  
});   

It is basically started by adding a Closure parameter to the handle() method. The user can call the handle() method and then pass a service as a parameter.

By the help of $closure(); in the handle() method, the user can tell Laravel to execute the given Closure that will then display the 'Interview Question.'